She found that students with behavior problems had significantly lower executive functioning abilities and thus tended to act out in ineffective ways when under stress by becoming impulsive, aggressive or shutting down.
Research receives award
On April 21, Cumming was recognized for her research by receiving the Student Award in Quantitative Design from the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), the world’s leading special education professional association. CEC, which held its annual conference in Boston, says the award recognizes outstanding research contributions to exceptional children and youth.
Specifically, Cumming conducted a study during the 2015-2016 school year of 79 middle school students in Florida, California and Arizona, roughly half of who were classified as having various behavior disorders. She used self-reported survey tools, including a National Institutes of Health-developed iPad app to assess the kids’ working memory, impulsiveness and cognitive flexibility. Teachers also were surveyed to report on students’ behaviors.
The results showed that students with emotional and behavior disorders had a sizable deficit in these executive functions, had higher peer stress, and use less effective stress regulation when encountering stress at school.
As with all such research, Cumming built her project on the work of others, most notably that of her faculty mentor, Stephen Smith, professor in the college’s Special Education program. She worked with Smith as a graduate research assistant to develop I Control, a school program to help foster self-regulation of middle school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
“I feel really lucky to have been a research assistant on such an important topic in special education,” she says.
The importance of middle school
Cumming says studying students in middle school is vital because this is an age when behavior problems most often spring up, when kids are maturing in their executive functioning skills and may act out when under stress from things such as academic challenges and peer pressure.
There is a lot riding on this area of research, partly because federal law requires public schools to provide students who have significant emotional and behavioral problems with services “to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment and independent living,” Cumming writes, citing the Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA).
Yet Cumming says schools have found that the programs they have implemented have had little impact on improving the outcomes for students with significant behavior problems.
“There is no school-based program that specifically targets executive functioning, stress regulation and stress reduction,” she says.
Cumming hopes her research and follow-up studies result in new programs that will improve these kids’ chances for success. She adds that mindfulness training and cognitive behavior therapy are among the most promising tools for living that can help these children.
“It’s so important to give them the tools to be able to manage their own behavior and — this is key — manage their behaviors when adults aren’t around,” Cumming says. “It’s something they can take with them throughout their entire lives. I’m pretty passionate about this.”
Writer: Charles Boisseau, 352-273-4449, 512-431-2269