Scaffolding: Refers to the support that is given to students in order for them to arrive at the correct answer. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a teacher offers during student practice.
Schwa: A quick, unstressed, neutral vowel pronunciation very close to a ‘short u’ /ʌ/. The purpose of schwa is to allow unstressed syllables to be said more quickly.
Scope and Sequence: A “roadmap” or “blueprint” for teachers that provides an overall picture of an instructional program and includes the range of teaching content and the order or sequence in which it is taught.
Screening: An informal inventory that provides the teacher a beginning indication of the student’s preparation for grade level reading instruction. It is a “first alert” that a child may need extra help to make adequate progress in reading during the year.
Segmenting: Separating the individual phonemes, or sounds, of a word into discrete units.
Short Vowel: A term used by educators to denote a lax vowel sound.
Sight Words: These are words that are recognized immediately after orthographic mapping. Sometimes sight words are thought to be irregular, or high frequency words (e.g., the Dolch and Fry lists). However, any word that is recognized automatically is a sight word. These words may be phonetically regular or irregular.
Spelling Patterns: Refers to digraphs, vowel pairs, word families, and vowel variant spellings.
Stop Sounds: A stop sound can only be said for an instant, otherwise its sound will be distorted (i.e., / b/, /c/ /d/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /k/, /p/, /q/, /t/, /x/). Words beginning with stop sounds are more difficult for students to sound out than words beginning with a continuous sound.
Structural Analysis: A procedure for teaching students to read words formed with prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts.
Student Friendly Explanation: An explanation of the word’s meaning rather than a definition. Characterizes the word and how it is typically used, and explains the meaning in everyday language.
Suffix: An affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes the meaning or grammatical function of the word, as “en” in oxen.
Syllable: A segment of a word that contains one vowel sound. The vowel may or may not be preceded and/or followed by a consonant.
Syllable Types: There are six syllable types: (a) Closed: cat, cobweb; (b) Open: he, silo; (c) Vowel-consonant-e(VCE): like, milestone; (d) R-controlled: star, corner; (e) Vowel team: count, rainbow; and (f) Final stable: candle, -tion, -ture, -cian.
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